Essay on the exploitation of children in India

Looking to the condition of children living with their parents in slums in metropolitan cities in India, or in the abodes of the poor or among the landless laborers in the rural areas one can guess the tragic fate of these buds that fade when they had a chance to bloom.

Most of the poor people in all castes and communities have a large number of children. It becomes rather obligatory for them to engage them in some remunerative work. In big cities and in smaller ones too, one would find children between the age of four and twelve working in roadside restaurants and tea stalls. They hardly get five to ten rupees a day—not sufficient even for their own meals. Many of them stay in the restaurant tenements during nights too and are sexually exploited.

Children of the same age group work in match industry in Sivakasi, quarries in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, carpet industry in Uttar Pradesh, brassware industry in Moradabad.

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According to a U. N. study the number of such children in India was more than 115 million in the nineties. They could not have the joys of childhood. Worse is the condition of the girl child. She has to start working in the household and the fields in the rural areas at the age of four. The exploitation of the girl child is so much that most born every year die before they are fifteen.

In this developed age 1000 of them died in Delhi alone in 1991 before their birth. Aminocentesis has become a curse for them. Sexual assault on girls between the age of 4 and 7 is a common feature in India.

According to a Bureau of Police Research and Development 1, 90,567 children were arrested in India in 1985. More than one—third of them belonged to the 7-12 age group. More than nine thousand were below 12 and 777 of these were girls. An enquiry instituted by the Chief Justice of India and conducted by a District Judge revealed that most of the children in jails are sexually assaulted by hard core criminals and even by the Jail staff. As there are no remand homes or Juvenile Jails in most of the districts in India lakhs of children are interned in regular jails. A large number rot there for years as under trials. When they come out many of them are themselves hard core criminals. A large number suffers from venereal diseases. Now many of them may catch AIDS too.

The fate of children in almost all the Third World countries is the same. According to a report of International Labor Organization (ILO) 200 million children below 15 have to earn their livelihood. According to an ILO expert the number may be 600 to 800 million i.e. equal to the whole population of India in 1990. The ILO report tells that 80% of Pakistani carpets are made by children who also work in India, Nepal and Afghanistan to make rugs. The same report says they cut diamonds in slums in Gujarat and Mumbai, cut cocoa beans, make T-shirts in Bangladesh, handbags in Thailand. They work with dangerous chemicals in Moroccan tanneries, wash earth and gravel to separate gold in Peruvian rain forests and work in Egypt in jasmine fields.

According to an Anti-slavery International estimate, 25 million children are employed as slaves on the Indian sub—continent, 8 million work as slaves in Andes, the region from Panama to Tierra del Fuego in America. Thousands of them work on Brazilian plantations to pay off their parents’ debts and thousands of these little ones are slave like servants in South African households.

A survey published in an esteemed English daily praises UNO for promulgating the ‘Convention of the Rights of Children’ .The bright patch is that the charter of “The rights of children to protection from economic exploitation was signed by a large number of countries next only to the human rights charter’. The pity is, as the report says, the laws and charters are just to be instituted not to be implemented. The poor child remains the worst sufferer.

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Cognitive Development in Children

The following are factors and necessities for proper cognitive development in children. We at Soham for Kids adhere to the environmental factors listed below, and strive to create a stable environment for proper learning.

(1) Biological factors

(a) Sense organs

Sense organs are important because they receive stimuli from the environment. Their proper development helps in receiving correct stimuli and the correct concepts are formed. Defective sense organs collect defective stimuli and as a result wrong concepts can be formed and the cognitive development will not be perfect.

(b) Intelligence

It has been seen that cognitive development of intelligent children is better. Children with low Intelligence Quotient are not able to receive stimuli from the environment properly, thus their cognitive development lags behind. Intelligence affects all mental capacities.

(c) Heredity

Cognitive development is also influenced by the hereditary traits; one gets from his parents. Their development is similar to their parents cognitive development.

(d) Maturation

As the child gets matured he gets more interactive with his environment. For a good cognitive develop­ment interaction with environment is very necessary which the child does with the help of his mental and motor maturation. They help directly in the development of cognition.

(2) Environment factors

(а) Learning opportunities

The opportunity a child gets to learn affects the cognitive development. The more opportunities he gets the better is the cognition, because he will be able to add to his mental capacities by learning through these opportunities.

(б) Economic status

Economic state of the family also helps in the development of cognition. Children from better economic status get more opportunities and better training and it helps in cognitive development.

(c) Play

Play is also quite important in developing cognition. Through play activities, the child interacts with the environment, receives stimuli and responds to them.

Through this he learns new processes acquire knowledge. He forms new com Eighteen months-old draws irregular sketch with crayons when he sees some similar between the sketch and any object around him.

He immediately understands and image is formed in his mind; e.g., he sketch a ‘circle’ and mother points out towards ‘mi He is now able to recognise this shape, child while playing and while many his toys learns many new experiences, becomes imaginative and does drama holding a ‘Gada’ and becomes Lord Hanum He plays school-school. Chess and cards in increasing his mental abilities.

(d) Various types of stimuli

As child grows, he gets various stimuli from environment through his senses and perceives their meanings. These stimuli form concepts and symbols. Parents and other people around the child could assist him get the right meanings of stimuli. T1 instructions and motivation help in cognitive development of the child. The child gets these stimuli from his toys and activities like identifying different colour shapes, smell, and sounds, etc.

(e) Family and society

Family is v important from the point of view of providing the child hereditary traits, which are the of development family also providing opportunities to learn, good encourage atmosphere to the child if the family provides such atmosphere to the child in which he maximum stimuli from the environment, would be encouraged to learn and with his environment. His cognitive development will be good.

The child learns observing and imitating others. He learns language, habits, by observing family and people around them. If society provide encouraging atmosphere, facilities gaining knowledge like good schools, librarian’s healthy recreation facilities, health facilities etc. to the children, they will develop possibility and good cognitive capacity. So we see the family and society both play an important rot in the development of cognition of the child.

 

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Volunteer at Soham for Kids!

This is a repost of important information regarding our volunteer program at Soham for Kids in Hyderabad, India. Please send us an email for more information.

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The best way to end poverty is through providing education for all…

Sometimes you want to do all you can to change the world for the better, but it feels overwhelming and impossible. There is a key to making this world a better place for millions of people, and that is proven through education.  You can do your part to better the world by volunteering your time and energy into helping a child learn.  At Soham for Kids we provide the classroom, the kids, the materials, but we are missing a key ingredient: YOU!  By volunteering at Soham you can contribute to the goal of betterment for mankind one child at a time.

We provide accommodation, meals, and classroom materials. On your arrival to Mallapur we will pick you up from the airport/train station and drop you off once your term is over.

You do not need a higher education degree, but some experience with children is a plus.  You can choose which subject you would like to teach.  There are many, and can range from English and Science to Art and Sports.

The duration of the program will be completely up to the volunteer, and ranges from one to three weeks. We have a very relaxed program, but we are very accommodating to your requests.

Hyderabad Information

Hyderabad is the meeting place between north and south India and is the capital city of Andhra Pradesh. Situated on the Musi river banks, Hyderabad is a modern city where tradition is mixed with high tech architecture and a bustling business area. The city offers shopping centers, glass facade towers and a great atmosphere. The old part of the city can be seen by the south bank of the Musi river featuring historical landmarks such as the Charminar.

The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is only a 22km drive away from the city center. This airport offers flights to many different destinations all over the world and is extremely well organized and modern. There are air conditioned buses to take you to your destination after your flight. These buses operate night and day and cabs are available at the bus stops. There are Indian railway routes from all over the country to Hyderabad and of course it is possible to explore the city on foot, by hired car, by bus or in a car rickshaw. The old city is where you will find amazing buildings and temples such as the Chowmahalla Palace, situated near the Charminar, the home of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. In the new city you will find newer attractions such as the great planetarium and the Birla Mandir, one of the most impressive marble temples in India, with an amazing view across the city.

A visa is necesary for visitors from North America, Australia, Great Britain and the European Union. Your passport has to be valid for at least the next 6 months. Hyderabad is not considered to be a risk area when it comes to safety for tourists. As in any big city there are pickpockets however. Hyderabad is not considered a high risk area regarding terrorism, but it is always wise to ask for a safety update from your travel agent.

 

Our school Principal and location is:

Nusrat Abbasi, Soham for Kids Principal
Plot No: 176, Green Hills Colony,
Mallapur, Hyderabad – 500 076.
Andhra Pradesh, India.
Tel: +91 40 64561202
Mobile: +91 9908 187974
E-Mail: nusrat@sohamforkids.org

Please contact us further for more information on volunteering at Soham for Kids!

Joseph Roy
Manager, Soham for Kids

Social Welfare in India

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The social Welfare Services of the Government of India are intended to carter to the special needs of persons and groups who, by reason of some handicap, social, economic, physicals or mental are unable to avail themselves of the amenities and services provided by the community. These weaker sections include women, children, handicapped, aged and infirm, Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes etc.

Social welfare activities in the country find their inspiration in constitution which postulates the goal of welfare state. Article 38 of the Constitution enjoying that the steps shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may, a social order in which, social, economic and political shall in form all the institutions of the national life.

They also encourage the states to ensure that the health and strength of wonders, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age and strength, and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

The Social Welfare Services in almost four decades of planning having sought to serve the development and rehabilitation needs of the weaker sections of the society.

The programmes of Social Welfare have been included in various Five Year Plans.

1) Women Welfare:

It was realised that the regeneration of women should be intrinsically bound up with the regeneration of the entire nation. Hence it was considered necessary to initiate specific measure for the welfare of women. Further, the benefits, of general welfare programmes reach women and children indirectly. It was not adequate for the need of women. Therefore, specific programmes have been initiated for the welfare of women.

These programmes include prohibition of dowry, functional literacy for adult women, working women’s hostels and Mahila Mandals etc. Besides socio economic programmes have been undertaken the Government to provide needy women and destitute with work and wage to supplement the meager income of their families. Learning from the shortcoming of the past and the tardy progress have made in the development of women.

The nation has now taken women’s development seriously particularly women in rural areas. The Development of Women and Children and Rural Areas (DWCAR) is one such effort in this direction and this was introduced in the year 1982-83. This scheme has been extended to all the districts of the country. The basic idea behind DWCRA is to mobilise all avenues of development efforts to support women in order to improve their status. This development scheme is managed by only women functionaries.

2) Child Welfare:

No programme of social welfare can afford to ignore the child. Therefore, various services have been provided to the children at district from general social services. These include establishment of Balwadis, grants for organising holidays groups for school going children of low income families, establishment of Ashram schools, rehabilitation of handicapped children, probation, services, care and protection for children, provision for both institutional and non institutional services which include establishment of postal schools, children’s home to tackle the problem of juvenile delinquency.

In the Fifth Plan highest priority had been accorded to child welfare programmes. The most important scheme in this field was the integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) for the children in the age group of 0 to 6 years. Under the scheme a package of services consisting of supplementary nutrition, immunisation, health check up referral services, health education is delivered. Further child referral services, health education is delivered. Further child development and welfare have been integrated into the DWCRA Scheme.

3) Welfare of physically handicapped:

Programmes are being implemented for the education, training and rehabilitation of four categories of handicapped persons, namely, the blind, the deaf, the orthopedically handicapped and mentally retarded. The Union Ministry of Social Welfare awards scholarship to blind, deaf and orthopedically handicapped students for general education and for technical and professional training. The national centre for the blind, DehraDun, provides integrated services.

The National centre for deaf at Hyderabad has a training centre for the adult deaf and a school for deaf children. The training centre imparts training in tailoring, carpentry, electrical wireman ship, gas welding and photography etc. The Government of India has taken steps for rehabilitation of handicapped persons. One such step is that pilot projects (DEC) are working in our country for rehabilitation of handicapped. Assistance is also given to voluntary organisation serving the handicapped.

4) Welfare of Scheduled Castes:

The Welfare of Scheduled Caste and Tribes is given special attention by both the Central and State Governments, Special Programmes for their welfare have been undertaken in the successive Five year Plans. Programmes for the welfare and development of Scheduled Castes and tribes are conceived of as being supplement to general developmental programmes in different sectors. Special provisions have been made for them so as to generate larger support from general schemes of development.

Welfare schemes for Scheduled Castes includes Commission for Harijan where, free education, free books and stationery, scholarship reservation in service, educational institutions, legislature and Panchayats and creation of economic opportunities for the economic development of the Harijans. Government is doing every possible effort to improve their housing conditions.

New colonies are being constructed for them. The constitution of India has provided certain safeguards to all Harijan Communities. Accordingly the Central Government passed an Act the Untouchability Offences Act, 1955 which forbids the practice of untouchabilty in any form.

5) Tribal Welfare:

The Indian Constitution has made important provision for the welfare of tribal people. The Government has given special attention to their education and economic development. In free India the state and Central Govt. Have made incessant efforts in the direction of tribal welfare. Special programmes for their welfare have been undertaken in the successive Five Year Plan. The main programmes are reservation in the services and legislatures, post metric scholarship, girls, hostel, overseas scholarship by central Government.

The state Sector Programme for which central assistance is given can be divided into three main groups, namely education, economic upliftment and health. The services provide to tribal’s under these programmes are free education, provision for educational equipments; setting up of Ashram School, supply of bullocks, seeds and manure, development of cottage industries and communications supply of sheep’s, pigs and goats medical facilities and drinking water provision of houses and house sites and provision of legal aid.

How to eradicate poverty

The following measures can go a long way to reduce the inequalities of income. They are:

1. More Employment Opportunities:

Poverty can be eliminated by provide more employment opportunities so that people may be able to meet their basic needs” For this purpose, labour intensive rather than capital intensive techniques can help solve the problem to a greater extent.

2. Minimum Needs Programme:

The programme of minimum needs can help to reduce poverty. This fact was realized in the early seventies as benefits of growth; not percolate to poor people and less developed countries are left with no choice except to pay direct attention to the basic needs of the low strata of the society.

3. Social Security Programmes:

The various social security schemes Workmen’s Compensation Act, Maternity Benefit Act, Provident Fund Act, Employ, State Insurance Act and other benefits in case of death, disability or disease while duty can make a frontal attack on poverty.

4. Establishment of Small Scale Industries:

The policy of encouraging companies and small industries can help to create employment in rural areas especially in less developed regions. Moreover, this will transfer resources from surplus areas to deficit without creating much problem of urbanization.

5. Uplift of Rural Masses:

As it is mentioned that India lives in villages, various schemes for the uplift of rural poor may be started. The poor living, in rural areas generally belong to the families of landless agricultural labourers, small marginal farmers, village artisans, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. However it must be remembered that Government of India has introduced many schemes from time to time.

6. Land Reforms:

Land reforms have the motto, “land belongs to the tiller”. Thus legislature measures were undertaken to abolish Zamindari System. Intermediaries ceiling on holdings was fixed.

But it is a bad luck, these land reforms lack  implementation. Even then, it is expected that if these reforms are implemented seriously, it would yield better results which will be helpful to reduce the income of affluent section.

7. Spread of Education:

Education helps to bring out the best in the human  mind and spirit. It is one of the most direct paths to take out of poverty. Therefore, it is urgent to provide education facilities to all. The should be given special facilities of stipend, free books and contingency allowance Education will help to bring awakening among the poor and raise their mental faculty.

8. Social and Political Atmosphere:

Without the active co-operation of citizens and political leaders, poverty cannot be eradicated from India. A conducive social political atmosphere is a necessary condition for eradicating the poverty from its root.

9. To Provide Minimum Requirements:

Ensuring the supply of minimum needs to the poor sections of society can help in solving the problem of poverty. For this, the public procurement and distribution system should be improved and strengthened.

D.YAMINI – L K G

D.Yamini is a 5 years old girl studying L.K.G. in Soham for Kids Hope School. Her father Mr.D.Lakshman is a disabled person who works in a book binding shop. He has two children, one daughter and one son; he earns Rs 2000/- PM.  Yamini’s brother who is elder to her is going to government school.

Yamini’s mother D.Lakshman is working as a maid-servant she earns Rs.2000/- P.M. they need to pay Rs 800/-P.M. as house rent, so it is very hard for Yamini’s mother to run the house alone. When Yamani got admission in this school her mother was grateful to the principal and the management. This is because at Soham for Kids we offer completely free quality education, nutrition food, and healthcare.

Yamani is interested in coloring. She is a very delicate girl who uses to write slowly. Teacher gave special attention and made her write little faster than before. She is enjoying her time at Soham School.

 

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